# Functions

But what can you really do with all of these different expressions? If you combine them into functions, quite a bit.

## What are Functions?

As with algebra, a function is something that takes one or more inputs, does something with this input, and returns an output. Let's start with an example that takes no inputs:

$$ f() = 5 $$

This function always returns $5$. Let's see how we would implement this in Python:

```
def f():
return 5
```

We can use this function over and over:

```
>>> f()
5
>>> y = f()
>>> y
5
>>> y = 6
>>> y
6
>>> f()
5
```

Notice that assigning `y`

to `f()`

will assign it to the *result* of calling `f()`

, not the function itself. So, changing `y`

to `6`

doesn't change the return value of `f()`

.

## Anatomy of a Function

Before we analyze the anatomy of a function, let's look at another one.

$$ g(x) = x + 2 $$

This function, in math, takes an input $x$ and returns $x+2$. In Python, this looks like:

```
def g(x):
return x + 2
```

We can use this as follows:

```
>>> g(5)
7
>>> z = g(2)
>>> z
4
>>> z = 5
>>> z
5
>>> g(2)
4
>>> g(3)
5
```

Let's break down this function.

```
def g(x): # there's a function coming called `g` that takes one input `x`
return x + 2 # `g` returns `x+2`
```

Note that a function can have more than one line, but only one return statement.

```
def h(x): # there's a function coming called `h` that takes one input `x`
y = x + 2 # assign `y` to `x+2`
return y # `h` returns `y`
```

This function does that exact same thing as `g`

, but it first assigns `x+2`

to a new variable before returning that new variable.

## Some Built-in Functions

Python comes with a number of functions that you may find useful. We'll discover more later, but here's a few.

```
>>> print('Hello!') # print the value inside the parentheses, without quotes.
Hello!
>>> print(print('Hello!')) # see the next section to understand how this is evaluated.
Hello! # the `print` function prints the input...
None # ...but note that it returns None, which is a representation of nothing.
>>> min(2, 5) # return the minimum of two or more numbers, separated by commas.
2
>>> max(2, 5) # return the maximum of two or more numbers, separated by commas.
5
```

## Evaluation

The way a function is evaluated is key to understanding how it works. Essentially, Python tries to evaluate every operand before evaluating the operator. In `h(x)`

, `h`

is the operator and `x`

is the operand.

We'll use the functions `add`

and `mul`

for this example, so you can see a PEMDAS-style operation. These functions are in the `operator`

package, which you'll learn about in a later week. For now, ignore the `import`

statement in the example below.

```
>>> from operator import mul, add
>>> add(5, mul(add(5, 2), 4))
33
```

So what happened here?

- Well, Python tried to evaluate
`5`

, then`mul(add(5, 2), 4)`

.- In evaluating the second expression, Python tried to evaluate
`add(5, 2)`

and`4`

.- In evaluating the first expression, Python tried to evaluate
`5`

and`2`

. - Those were already evaluated, so the innermost
`add`

function executed and returned`7`

.

- In evaluating the first expression, Python tried to evaluate
- Now, the
`mul`

function's parameters became`7`

and`4`

, so the`mul`

function executed and returned`28`

.

- In evaluating the second expression, Python tried to evaluate
- Lastly, the outermost
`add`

function's parameters became`5`

and`28`

, so the function executed and returned`33`

.

## No Comments